Bucephalandra is a low-growing flowering aroid plant found exclusively on the island of Borneo. This plant is a rheophyte found growing as dense mats over stones in streams at locations subject to drastic change between flooding and prolonged dry periods which is comparable to that of Anubias barteri from Western Africa. The plant relies on a strong root system to attach firmly upon smooth rocks which can only be loosened by knife.

New growth vary as a creeping or upright rhizome. The robust short-stalked leaves are obovate to lanceolate, with a smooth to undulate margin.

Silvery dots are develop on the leaves when submersed. The inflorescence with a white to pale pink spathe develop on both emersed and submersed plants. Specimens found in nature are 2-7″ (5 to 20 cm) tall while submersed cultivated plants grow significantly smaller in general. The variety names often reflect the location where they are collected.

Bucephalandra is a relatively undemanding plant that grows and reproduces very slowly. It can be attached to rocks or driftwood or held in place by weights or planted in coarse substrate. It will survive low light while its potential size and color is reached under intensive light, good water movement, CO2 injection and regular fertilisation. Soft water seems to have a positive effect. Bucephalandra can be planted in substrate unlike cryptocoryne but prefers nutrient rich substrate over inert. More or less consistent conditions are recommendable.

Sudden changes of the water parameters may lead to the disintegration of leaves, comparable to the “melt” exhibited by cryptocoryne.

These plants are largely wild harvested and shipped to feed global demand. Particularly for slow growers, the concern of over-harvesting and harm to the environment is evident and conservation needed.

Source: http://www.theaquaticplantsociety.org/world-of-bucephalandra/